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The International League (IL) is a minor league baseball league which operates in the eastern United States. Like the Pacific Coast League and the Mexican League, it plays at the Triple-A level, which is one step below Major League Baseball. It was so-named because it had teams in both the United States and Canada (and for several years in the 1950s in Cuba as well.) Its name is currently a misnomer: since the Ottawa Lynx relocated to Allentown, Pennsylvania, at the end of the 2007 season, the league now has teams only in the United States.



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The International League was created from the mergers of member teams from three precursor leagues: the Eastern League, founded in 1884; the New York State League, formed in 1885; and the Ontario League, also organized in 1885. The New York State and Ontario leagues merged in 1886 to form the International League, and in 1887 the Eastern League was absorbed to create a 10-club league.

The league collapsed soon afterwards, when the Northern teams claimed that it was too onerous to travel to the South and formed the International Association. Teams and league names came and went over the years. In 1954, a franchise was awarded to Havana, Cuba, but due to political upheaval in that country it had to be moved — to Jersey City, New Jersey — in the middle of the 1960 season. Another foray into the Caribbean failed when the newly-created team in San Juan, Puerto Rico, added in 1961, had to be moved to Charleston, West Virginia in mid-season.

In 1971, an International League all-star team beat the New York Yankees in an exhibition game in Rochester, New York, before 11,000 people. In 1984, the all-stars lost to the Cleveland Indians in 11 innings before 11,032 fans in Columbus, Ohio, to commemorate the league's 100th anniversary.

The International League and the American Association, another Triple-A league that operated in the Midwest, voted in 1988 to play interleague games. The league also split into two divisions that year. The interleague concept ended in 1992, but the two league divisions remained.

In further interleague play, in 1988, the three Triple-A leagues, the other being the Pacific Coast League, met to play the first Triple-A All-Star Game. One team was made up of All-Stars from American League affiliates and the other of National League affiliates. Beginning in 1998, a team of IL All-Stars faced off against a team of PCL All-Stars.

Also in 1998, with the addition of three new teams from the disbanded American Association and the new Durham Bulls expansion team, the league reorganized into three divisions: the North Division, South Division, and West Division.

At the end of each season, the three divisional leaders and a wild card team square off in best-of-5 playoffs, with the winning team of the finals awarded the Governors' Cup, the league's championship trophy.

Since 2006 the league champion has met to play the PCL champion in the Triple-A Baseball National Championship Game, a single Triple-A Championship game. Previous class championship series included the Junior World Series and the Triple-A World Series.

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Division Team MLB Affiliation City Stadium Capacity
North Buffalo Bisons New York Mets Buffalo, New York Coca-Cola Field 19,500
Lehigh Valley IronPigs Philadelphia Phillies Allentown, Pennsylvania Coca-Cola Park 10,000
Pawtucket Red Sox Boston Red Sox Pawtucket, Rhode Island McCoy Stadium 10,031
Rochester Red Wings Minnesota Twins Rochester, New York Frontier Field 10,868
Scranton/Wilkes-Barre Yankees New York Yankees Moosic, Pennsylvania PNC Field 10,310
Syracuse Chiefs Washington Nationals Syracuse, New York Alliance Bank Stadium 11,117
South Charlotte Knights Chicago White Sox Fort Mill, South Carolina Knights Stadium 10,002
Durham Bulls Tampa Bay Rays Durham, North Carolina Durham Bulls Athletic Park 10,000
Gwinnett Braves Atlanta Braves Lawrenceville, Georgia Gwinnett Stadium 10,099
Norfolk Tides Baltimore Orioles Norfolk, Virginia Harbor Park 12,067
West Columbus Clippers Cleveland Indians Columbus, Ohio Huntington Park 10,000
Indianapolis Indians Pittsburgh Pirates Indianapolis, Indiana Victory Field 15,500
Louisville Bats Cincinnati Reds Louisville, Kentucky Louisville Slugger Field 13,131
Toledo Mud Hens Detroit Tigers Toledo, Ohio Fifth Third Field 10,300
Hosting the 2010 Triple-A All-Star Game
North Division South Division West Division
Team Manager Affiliation Team Manager Affiliation Team Manager Affiliation
Buffalo Bisons Ken Oberkfell New York Mets Charlotte Knights Chris Chambliss Chicago White Sox Columbus Clippers Torey Lovullo Cleveland Indians
Lehigh Valley IronPigs Dave Huppert Philadelphia Phillies Durham Bulls Charlie Montoyo Tampa Bay Rays Indianapolis Indians Frank Kremblas Pittsburgh Pirates
Pawtucket Red Sox Ron Johnson Boston Red Sox Gwinnett Braves Dave Brundage Atlanta Braves Louisville Bats Rick Sweet Cincinnati Reds
Rochester Red Wings Stan Cliburn Minnesota Twins Norfolk Tides Gary Allenson Baltimore Orioles Toledo Mud Hens Larry Parrish Detroit Tigers
Scranton/Wilkes-Barre Yankees Dave Miley New York Yankees
Syracuse Chiefs Tim Foli Washington Nationals

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BOLD indicates Governors' Cup winner
Year Team Manager Winning Percentage Interleague Postseason Play
1912 Toronto Maple Leafs .596
1913 Newark Indians .625
1914 Providence Grays .617
1915 Buffalo Bisons .532
1916 Buffalo Bisons .586
1917 Toronto Maple Leafs .604 Little World Series
1918 Toronto Maple Leafs .693
1919 Baltimore Orioles .671
1920 Baltimore Orioles .719 Little World Series
1921 Baltimore Orioles .717 Little World Series
1922 Baltimore Orioles .689 Little World Series Tune-up, Little World Series
1923 Baltimore Orioles .677 Little World Series Tune-up, Little World Series
1924 Baltimore Orioles .709 Little World Series Tune-up, Little World Series
1925 Baltimore Orioles .633 Little World Series Tune-up, Little World Series
1926 Toronto Maple Leafs .657 Little World Series
1927 Buffalo Bisons .667 Eastern Championship, Little World Series
1928 Rochester Red Wings .549 Eastern Championship, Little World Series
1929 Rochester Red Wings .613 Little World Series
1930 Rochester Red Wings .629 Little World Series
1931 Rochester Red Wings .601 Little World Series
1932 Newark Bears .649 Junior World Series
1933 Buffalo Bisons Ray Schalk Junior World Series
1934 Toronto Maple Leafs Ike Boone Junior World Series
1935 Syracuse Chiefs Nemo Leibold
1936 Buffalo Bisons Ray Schalk Junior World Series
1937 Newark Bears Oscar Vitt Junior World Series
1938 Newark Bears Johnny Neun Junior World Series
1939 Rochester Red Wings Billy Southworth Junior World Series
1940 Newark Bears Johnny Neun Junior World Series
1941 Montreal Royals Clyde Sukeforth Junior World Series
1942 Syracuse Chiefs Jewel Ens Junior World Series
1943 Syracuse Chiefs Jewel Ens Junior World Series
1944 Baltimore Orioles Tommy Thomas Junior World Series
1945 Newark Bears Bill Meyer Junior World Series
1946 Montreal Royals Clay Hopper Junior World Series
1947 Syracuse Chiefs Jewel Ens Junior World Series
1948 Montreal Royals Clay Hopper Junior World Series
1949 Montreal Royals Clay Hopper Junior World Series
1950 Baltimore Orioles Nick Cullop Junior World Series
1951 Montreal Royals Walter Alston Junior World Series
1952 Rochester Red Wings Harry Walker Junior World Series
1953 Montreal Royals Walter Alston Junior World Series
1954 Syracuse Chiefs Skeeter Newsome Junior World Series
1955 Rochester Red Wings Fred Walker Junior World Series
1956 Rochester Red Wings Fred Walker Junior World Series
1957 Buffalo Bisons Phil Cavarretta Junior World Series
1958 Montreal Royals Clay Bryant Junior World Series
1959 Havana Sugar Kings Preston Gomez Junior World Series
1960 Toronto Maple Leafs Mel McGaha Junior World Series
1961 Buffalo Bisons Kerby Farrell Junior World Series
1962 Atlanta Crackers Joe Schultz Junior World Series
1963 Indianapolis Indians Rollie Hemsley
1964 Rochester Red Wings Darrell Johnson
1965 Toronto Maple Leafs Dick Williams
1966 Toronto Maple Leafs Dick Williams
1967 Toledo Mud Hens Jack Tighe
1968 Jacksonville Suns Clyde McCullough
1969 Syracuse Chiefs Frank Verdi
1970 Syracuse Chiefs Frank Verdi Junior World Series
1971 Rochester Red Wings Joe Altobelli Junior World Series
1972 Tidewater Tides Hank Bauer World Baseball Championship
1973 Pawtucket Red Sox Darrell Johnson Junior World Series
1974 Rochester Red Wings Joe Altobelli Junior World Series
1975 Tidewater Tides Joe Frazier
1976 Syracuse Chiefs Bobby Cox
1977 Charleston Charlies Jim Beauchamp
1978 Richmond Braves Tommie Aaron
1979 Columbus Clippers Gene Michael
1980 Columbus Clippers Joe Altobelli
1981 Columbus Clippers Frank Verdi
1982 Tidewater Tides Jack Aker
1983 Tidewater Tides Davey Johnson Triple-A World Series
1984 Pawtucket Red Sox Tony Torchia
1985 Tidewater Tides Bob Schaefer
1986 Richmond Braves Roy Majtyka
1987 Columbus Clippers Bucky Dent
1988 Rochester Red Wings Johnny Oates Triple-A Classic
1989 Richmond Braves Jim Beauchamp Triple-A Classic
1990 Rochester Red Wings Greg Biagini Triple-A Classic
1991 Columbus Clippers Rick Down Triple-A Classic
1992 Columbus Clippers Rick Down
1993 Charlotte Knights Charlie Manuel
1994 Richmond Braves Grady Little
1995 Ottawa Lynx Pete Mackanin
1996 Columbus Clippers Stump Merrill
1997 Rochester Red Wings Marv Foley
1998 Buffalo Bisons Jeff Datz Triple-A World Series
1999 Charlotte Knights Tom Spencer Triple-A World Series
2000 Indianapolis Indians Steve Smith Triple-A World Series
2001 Louisville RiverBats Dave Miley
2002 Durham Bulls Bill Evers
2003 Durham Bulls Bill Evers
2004 Buffalo Bisons Marty Brown
2005 Toledo Mud Hens Larry Parrish
2006 Toledo Mud Hens Larry Parrish Bricktown Showdown
2007 Richmond Braves Dave Brundage Bricktown Showdown
2008 Scranton/Wilkes-Barre Yankees Dave Miley Bricktown Showdown
2009 Durham Bulls Charlie Montoyo .576 Triple-A Baseball National Championship

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Year Most Valuable Player, Position Most Valuable Pitcher Manager of the Year
1932 Marv Owen, 3B
1933 Red Rolfe, 3B
1934 Ike Boone, OF-Manager
1935 George Puccinelli, OF
1936 Beauty McGowan, OF
1937 Buck Crouse, C-Manager
1938 Ollie Carnegie, OF
1939 Mickey Witek, SS
1940 Mike Ryba, P
1941 Fred Hutchinson, P
1942 Red Barrett, P
1943 Red Schoendienst, SS
1944 Howie Moss, OF
1945 Sherm Lollar, C
1946 Eddie Robinson, 1B
1947 Hank Sauer, OF
1948 Jimmy Bloodworth, 2B
1949 Bobby Morgan, SS
1950 Tom Poholsky, P
1951 Archie Wilson, OF
1952 Jim Gilliam, 2B-OF
1953 Rocky Nelson, 1B Bob Trice
1954 Elston Howard, Tony Jacobs
1955 Rocky Nelson, Jack Crimian
1956 Mike Goliat, Lynn Lovenguth
1957 Mike Baxes, SS Don Johnson
1958 Rocky Nelson, Tommy Lasorda
1959 Pancho Herrera, Bill Short
1960 Jim King, Al Cicotte
1961 Ted Savage, Diomedes Olivo
1962 Tony Martinez, Joe Schaffernoth
1963 Don Buford, Fred Ackley
1964 Joe Morgan, Mel Stottlemyre Sr.
1965 Joe Foy, Sam Jones
1966 Mike Epstein, Gary Waslewski
1967 Tommie Aaron, Dave Leonhard Jack Tighe
1968 Merv Rettenmund, Dave Roberts Jack Tighe
1969 Luis Alvarado, SS Ron Klimkowski Clyde McCullough
1970
George Kopacz, Roger Freed,
Rob Gardner Frank Verdi
1971 Bobby Grich, SS Roric Harrison Joe Altobelli
1972 Dwight Evans, Gene Garber Hank Bauer
1973 Jim Fuller, OF-DH Dick Pole Joe Morgan
1974 Jim Rice, OF Scott McGregor Karl Kuehl
1975 Mike Vail, OF Craig Swan Joe Frazier
1976
Rich Dauer, 2B Mickey Klutts, SS Joe Lis, 1B
Dennis Martinez Joe Altobelli
1977 Ted Cox, Mike Parrott Joe Morgan
1978 Gary Allenson, C Juan Berenguer Jim Beauchamp
1979
Bobby Brown, OF Dave Stapleton, 1B-3B
Rick Anderson Vern Benson
1980 Marshall Brant, 1B Bob Kammeyer Joe Altobelli
1981 Brett Butler, Bob Ojeda Eddie Haas
1982 Tucker Ashford, Craig McMurtry Eddie Haas
1983 Tim Teufel, 2B Walt Terrell Doc Edwards
1984 Scott Bradley, Brad Havens Tony Torchia
1985 Dan Pasqua, OF Tom Henke Doug Ault
1986 Pat Dodson, 1B John Mitchell John Hart
1987 Randy Milligan, 1B Brad Arnsberg Ed Nottle
1988 Craig Worthington, 3B Steve Searcy Johnny Oates
1989 Tom O'Malley, 3B Alex Sanchez Bob Bailor
1990 Hensley Meulens, OF Dave Eiland Greg Biagini
1991 Derek Bell, OF Mike Mussina Butch Hobson
1992 J.T. Snow, 1B Sam Militello Lee Elia
1993 Jim Thome, 3B Aaron Sele Mike Quade
1994 Jeff Manto, 3B-1B Brad Woodall Grady Little
1995 Butch Huskey, 3B Jason Isringhausen Toby Harrah
1996 Phil Hiatt, 3B Mike Fyhrie Buddy Bailey
1997 Roberto Petagine, 1B Brian Rose Marv Foley
1998 Roberto Petagine, 1B-OF Shannon Withem Ken Macha
1999 Steve Cox, 1B Ed Yarnall Tom Spencer
2000 Chad Mottola, OF Jon Garland Joel Skinner
2001 Toby Hall, C Brandon Duckworth Eric Wedge
2002 Raul Gonzalez, OF Joe Roa Marc Bombard
2003 Fernando Seguignol, DH Bronson Arroyo Buddy Bailey
2004 Jhonny Peralta, SS/3B Ben Hendrickson Marty Brown
2005 Shane Victorino, OF Zach Duke Larry Parrish
2006 Kevin Witt, 1B Heath Phillips John Russell
2007 Mike Hessman, 3B Kevin Slowey Dave Miley
2008 Jeff Bailey, OF-1B Charlie Zink Rick Sweet
2009 Shelley Duncan, OF-1B Justin Lehr Rick Sweet

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IL record holders for a single season include:

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Became the International Association

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Successor of the Canadian League 1899

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Grand Rapids disbanded July 3, causing Port Huron and Saginaw to disband. The league disbanded July 5.

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St. Thomas, ON: St. Thomas Saints 11-9


Guelph moved to St. Thomas June 12, overall record 22-20. League disbanded July 31

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Hall of Fame Alumni Years in IL Team(s)
Johnny Bench 1966-1967 Buffalo Bisons
Chief Bender 1922, 1923 Reading Aces, Baltimore Orioles
Yogi Berra 1946 Newark Bears
Jim Bottomley 1922, 1938 Syracuse Stars, Syracuse Chiefs
Lou Boudreau 1939 Buffalo Bisons
Jim Bunning 1953, 1955 Buffalo Bisons
Roy Campanella 1947 Montreal Royals
Roberto Clemente 1954 Montreal Royals
Bill Dickey 1928 Buffalo Bisons
Don Drysdale 1955 Montreal Royals
Carlton Fisk 1971 Louisville Colonels
Jimmie Foxx 1925 Providence Grays
Charlie Gehringer 1925 Toronto Maple Leafs
Bob Gibson 1958, 1960 Rochester Red Wings
Frank Grant 1886-1888 Buffalo Bisons
Lefty Grove 1920-1924 Baltimore Orioles
Chick Hafey 1925 Syracuse Stars
Bucky Harris 1918-1919 Buffalo Bisons
Gabby Hartnett 1943-1944 Jersey City Giants
Rogers Hornsby 1938 Baltimore Orioles
Waite Hoyt 1917, 1918 Montreal Royals, Newark Bears
Carl Hubbell 1926 Toronto Maple Leafs
Monte Irvin 1949-1950 Jersey City Giants
Travis Jackson 1937-1938 Jersey City Giants
Fergie Jenkins 1962, 1963 Buffalo Bisons, Arkansas Travelers
Walter Johnson 1928 Newark Bears
George Kelly 1917, 1919, 1932 Rochester Hustlers, Jersey City Skeeters
Ralph Kiner 1943 Toronto Maple Leafs
Nap Lajoie 1917 Toronto Maple Leafs
Tony Lazzeri 1939-1940 Toronto Maple Leafs
Bob Lemon 1942 Baltimore Orioles
Heinie Manush 1938-1939 Toronto Maple Leafs
Rabbit Maranville 1927 Rochester Tribe
Rube Marquard 1927 Baltimore Orioles
Joe McGinnity 1912 Newark Sailors
Johnny Mize 1933-1935 Rochester Red Wings
Stan Musial 1941 Rochester Red Wings
Phil Niekro 1966 Richmond Braves
Satchel Paige 1956-1958 Miami Marlins
Jim Palmer 1967-1968 Rochester Red Wings
Herb Pennock 1915, 1916 Providence Grays, Buffalo Bisons
Kirby Puckett 1984 Toledo Mud Hens
Cal Ripken Jr. 1981 Rochester Red Wings
Jackie Robinson 1946 Montreal Royals
Babe Ruth 1914, 1915 Baltimore Orioles, Providence Grays
Nolan Ryan 1967 Jacksonville Suns
Ray Schalk 1932 Buffalo Bisons
Red Schoendienst 1943-1944 Rochester Red Wings
Tom Seaver 1966 Jacksonville Suns
George Sisler 1931 Rochester Red Wings
Duke Snider 1944, 1948 Montreal Royals
Tris Speaker 1929-1930 Newark Bears
Willie Stargell 1962 Columbus Jets
Dazzy Vance 1918 Rochester Hustlers
Hack Wilson 1935 Albany Senators
Ross Youngs 1917 Rochester Hustlers